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Since 2007, almost one-third of mumps cases in the United States occurred in pediatric patients, and most of these patients were vaccinated, according to a study published in the December issue of Pediatrics.

Leah Shepersky, M.P.H., from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, and colleagues analyzed mumps cases reported by U.S. health departments during 2007 to 2019. The incidence and vaccination status of pediatric cases (age <18 years) were presented.

The researchers found that 9,172 pediatric cases were reported during 2007 to 2019, accounting for a median of 32 percent of all cases per year. Of the pediatric patients each year, a median of 87 percent had previously received one or more measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine doses. Among the 5,461 pediatric cases reported during 2015 to 2019, only 2 percent of the 74 percent with known import status were associated with international travel. One and 2 percent of patients had complications and were hospitalized, respectively. Of the patients aged 1 year or older with known vaccination status, 74 and 86 percent of 1- to 4-year-olds and 5- to 17-year-olds had received one or more and two or more MMR doses, respectively. Pediatric mumps cases have been reported in most U.S. states each year since 2016.

“The occurrence of pediatric mumps cases among vaccinated patients in most states highlights the need for clinicians to suspect mumps in pediatric patients with parotitis or mumps complications, regardless of age, vaccination status, or travel history,” the authors write.